En los últimos días las energías eólica y fotovoltaica españolas no paran de dar alegrías, y es que la tecnología nacional, además de superar fronteras y recibir grandes reconocimientos, empieza a encabezar de forma sostenida la producción eléctrica del país.

El éxito de las energías eólica y fotovoltaica

El éxito de las energías eólica y fotovoltaicaVamos con el primero logro del 2013: la Asociación Empresarial Eólica ha recogido recientemente el premio European Wind Energy Award, que ha concedido la Asociación Europea de Energía Eólica (EWEA, en sus siglas en inglés) a España por ser el primer país del mundo en conseguir que la energía eólica sea la primera fuente de electricidad del país durante un año completo. Toda una hazaña que ha sido posible gracias al tejido industrial de las renovables que reconoce los logros del sector y sus empresas, los esfuerzos en tecnología e ingeniería y, en general, su buen trabajo.

Asociación Europea de Energía Eólica:[quote]“España se merece el European Wind Energy Award por su historia de éxito. Fue un país pionero en eólica y ha desarrollado una destacada industria con líderes mundiales entre sus empresas. Estas compañías han hecho posible que la energía eólica haya sido la primera fuente de electricidad para los españoles en 2013, lo que ocurre por primera vez en el mundo” [/quote]

No todo es bueno: a pesar de la buena noticia, la asociación española critica que “mientras Europa premia a la eólica española por su historia de éxito, el Gobierno le da la espalda y la penaliza con la regulación más lesiva que se ha dictado jamás contra el sector en ningún país del mundo”, en referencia a la Reforma Energética.

En función de las cifras alcanzadas en 2013 según Red Eléctrica de España (REE), la cobertura de la demanda con eólica fue del 20,9% y la producción anual, de 54.478 GWh, la más alta de la historia. Unas cifras que desde la Asociación Empresarial Eólica (AEE) sería suficiente para abastecer a 15,5 millones de hogares españoles, el 90% del total.

España es el tercer país de la UE que más tecnología eólica exporta, después de Alemania y Dinamarca, según los datos de la Comisión Europea. En 2012, España exportó componentes y equipamiento eólico por valor de 1.500 millones de euros, y ha multiplicado sus exportaciones eólicas por diez entre 1998 y 2012. España es el quinto país del mundo en patentes eólicas, con el 9,1% de las patentes eólicas europeas, frente a una media del 2,4% de todos los sectores económicos españoles.

La energía fotovoltaica, también la cima

Siguiendo con las cifras, durante el año pasado también se alcanzó otro hito para las energías eólica y fotovoltaica, y es que la segunda alcanzó el récord de potencia instalada en el mundo, con un aumento del 35% con respecto al año anterior. Esto suma un total de 136.700 MW, según un estudio realizado por la Asociación Europea de la Industria Fotovoltaica (EPIA) con la colaboración a nivel nacional de la Unión Española Fotovoltaica (UNEF).

Además, se espera que 2014 cierre con más de 55.000 nuevos MW instalados, lo que supondrá que la energía fotovoltaica perderá su predominio en Europa en favor de su competitividad en el resto del mundo, según las cifras de potencia nueva instalada en las principales economías:

  • China, 11.300 MW
  • Japón, 6.900 MW
  • Estados Unidos, 4.200 MW 
  • Alemania, 3.300 MW
  • Italia, 1.400 MW
  • Gran Bretaña 1000 MW

Según la Comisión Europea, la participación de las fuentes renovables, como las energías eólica y fotovoltaica, en el consumo de energía primaria en la Unión Europea alcanzó el 14%, y países como Bulgaria, Estonia o Suecia han alcanzado ya sus objetivos para 2020, a diferencia de España, todavía lejos de su objetivo.

Por esta razón, la patronal eólica considera que “se está perdiendo la oportunidad de aprovechar el potencial de unas empresas desarrolladas en España cuya competitividad y know how están reconocidos internacionalmente y que se encuentran en una situación límite”.

Es evidente que las energías eólica y fotovoltaica han jugado bien su papel, y que las cifras alcanzadas el año pasado revalidan la importancia de apostar por estos sistemas renovables altamente competitivos, al dejar patente su capacidad para superar a las fuentes de combustibles sólidos.


Imagen | Unplash

Fuentes | AEE, AEEUNEF

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